Diabetes or Diabets Mellitus

As defined by the International Federation of Diabetics (IDF) diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreatic cells (pancreas) do not produce enough insulin or where the body of the produced insulin cannot use it effectively. This makes it difficult for glucose (derived from food) to pass into cells, so they cannot function normally. The metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats is also mistaken.

According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), Metabolic disorders arising from many causes, caused by chronic hyperglycemia (a condition of elevated blood sugar). It is thought to be a disorder in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, a consequence of abnormal insulin secretion or action. The end effects of the disease can be permanent damage, malfunctioning, or even failure of many body organs.

Insulin (lat. Insula = island) is a hormone, a chemical protein secreted by beta cells in the pancreas, more specifically in the so-called Langerhans islets in the pancreas. The pancreatic concentrate was first used to treat diabetes in 1922. It used to be insulin from the bovine or porcine pancreas, but today it is produced by forcing bacteria or molds with genetic engineering to produce it, and then purified. The insulin produced in this way is exactly the same as human insulin and is also called human insulin.

Typical clinical signs of diabetes are:

increased excretion of water from the body (urination) - polyuria
related dehydration and severe thirst - polydipsia
feeling unwell
weight loss
reduced resistance

According to the latest data from 2003, 194 million people with diabetes live in the world, 30 million of them in Europe. In Europe on average at least 8% of the population has diabetes.

There are several types of diabetes:

type 2 diabetes
type 1 diabetes
diabetes in pregnancy and other types of diabetes

Type II diabetes mellitus

Type 2 diabetes (formerly referred to as age-related diabetes or insulin-independent diabetes) has 95 percent of patients with diabetes. Excessive blood sugar is due to the concomitant impairment of insulin-secreting pancreas and the impaired effect of insulin on body tissues, especially the muscles and liver. Type 2 diabetes often occurs with high blood pressure and impaired fat metabolism, so concomitant treatment of high blood sugar, pressure and fat is essential.

Type 2:

is the most common form of diabetes: about 90% of all diabetics have it
the basis is probably genetic
it's not about insulin deficiency, it's about resisting its action (it can even be too much)
insulin resistance increases with age (if it is a hereditary basis); hyperglycemia is initially moderate, then increases
diet and anti-diabetic tablets are sufficient in the treatment, and problems that occur in parallel (increased blood sugar, increased blood fat, increased blood pressure) or, if overweight, and smoking should be treated at the same time;
over the years, patients can reach blood glucose levels that require insulin injection
both the onset and worsening of the disease are aided by inadequate living conditions (inappropriate diet, overweight, too little movement, stress)

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