As defined by the International Federation of Diabetics (IDF) diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreatic cells (pancreas) do not produce enough insulin or where the body of the produced insulin cannot use it effectively. This makes it difficult for glucose (derived from food) to pass into cells, so they cannot function normally. The metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats is also mistaken.
According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), Metabolic disorders arising from many causes, caused by chronic hyperglycemia (a condition of elevated blood sugar). It is thought to be a disorder in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, a consequence of abnormal insulin secretion or action. The end effects of the disease can be permanent damage, malfunctioning, or even failure of many body organs.
Insulin (lat. Insula = island) is a hormone, a chemical protein secreted by beta cells in the pancreas, more specifically in the so-called Langerhans islets in the pancreas. The pancreatic concentrate was first used to treat diabetes in 1922. It used to be insulin from the bovine or porcine pancreas, but today it is produced by forcing bacteria or molds with genetic engineering to produce it, and then purified. The insulin produced in this way is exactly the same as human insulin and is also called human insulin.
Typical clinical signs of diabetes are:
increased excretion of water from the body (urination) - polyuria related dehydration and severe thirst - polydipsia feeling unwell weight loss reduced resistance
According to the latest data from 2003, 194 million people with diabetes live in the world, 30 million of them in Europe. In Europe on average at least 8% of the population has diabetes.
There are several types of diabetes:
type 2 diabetes type 1 diabetes diabetes in pregnancy and other types of diabetes
Type II diabetes mellitus
Type 2 diabetes (formerly referred to as age-related diabetes or insulin-independent diabetes) has 95 percent of patients with diabetes. Excessive blood sugar is due to the concomitant impairment of insulin-secreting pancreas and the impaired effect of insulin on body tissues, especially the muscles and liver. Type 2 diabetes often occurs with high blood pressure and impaired fat metabolism, so concomitant treatment of high blood sugar, pressure and fat is essential.
is the most common form of diabetes: about 90% of all diabetics have it the basis is probably genetic it's not about insulin deficiency, it's about resisting its action (it can even be too much) insulin resistance increases with age (if it is a hereditary basis); hyperglycemia is initially moderate, then increases diet and anti-diabetic tablets are sufficient in the treatment, and problems that occur in parallel (increased blood sugar, increased blood fat, increased blood pressure) or, if overweight, and smoking should be treated at the same time; over the years, patients can reach blood glucose levels that require insulin injection both the onset and worsening of the disease are aided by inadequate living conditions (inappropriate diet, overweight, too little movement, stress)